For those who don’t know what the Rosetta Stone is, it’s a tablet found in 1799 that greatly assisted the translation of ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphs [subsequently] to every modern language.
So why do I use this as an analogy for non-cash payments?
Hieroglyphs had puzzled scholars for centuries until the Rosetta Stone unlocked them enough for the translation to move forward to completion. Having a software PIN will effect the exact same unlocking of the transition of non-cash payments from plastic to mobile. We have had payment cards for 60+ years, with nothing in that time anywhere near ubiquitous enough to disrupt them, now we do. And while mobile devices are in no way perfect, and in many ways even less secure than payment card, they are already far more prevalent. Despite all of mobiles’s flaws, they are being used today as a payment medium, a trend that will continue until plastic is replaced completely (at least in its current form).
There are too many reasons for the continuity to go into here (sheer functionality being the top one), but it has been slow because until now every mobile payment innovation was just a little too much for people to accept, just a smidge too radical to gain the necessary momentum.
This is probably because none of those innovations kept the most widely used of the authentication mechanisms in the world; the PIN. The enormously complex and expensive chip & PIN (EMV) used for credit cards is accepted globally (if they can afford it), but up till now there has been no way to effect an acceptable level of security on a device that is never going to be as secure as a system built for purpose.
But ‘as secure’ is not the point, ‘secure enough’ is. You’re not fighting for perfection and zero loss through theft, you’re fighting for making it too difficult for thieves to bother. This can only be effected by layers of security, the so-called defence-in-depth. EMV put all of its security controls into a single factor (they had no choice), but mobile devices have access to numerous – and ever expanding – options:
- Geolocation/Geofencing: Whatever you want to call it, and whatever buzz phrases vendors will come up with next, they all mean the same thing; are you where you should be? Should you be paying for something in Glasgow if you live in London? Maybe, but when you set the areas from which payments can be made, you are removing the majority of the bad guys’ ability to process a fraudulent transaction.
Yes, there can be privacy issues, but most vendors have dealt with that now.
- Device Authentication: Every mobile phone has a serial number, IMEI number, and other built in identifiers. If your device is registered it’s very difficult to use another device to get in the middle. Not impossible, just difficult.
- Application Signing and Authentication: Minimal security in and of itself, but is another security layer which ensures as much as possible that only known good apps are used. Apple and Google have their own ways of doing this for downloads, neither of which is adequate. Ongoing application verification can be relatively useful though.
- App Blacklisting / Malware Detection: Very early days yet for mobile devices, but in the same way that operating systems anti-virus vendors have made untold fortunes regurgitating known bad things into signatures, mobile devices will have the ability to blacklist apps that should never be running on devices secure enough to authenticate payments. OS hardening guides (SELinux for example) and version control (Android must be at v4.2 and above for example) are fundamental baselines.
- PIN Image ‘Watermarking’: Most internet banking sites now have a facility whereby you can upload a personal image to ensure that your open communication is actually with your bank and not redirected to a bad guy. Mobile devices make this factor possible and can even be configured into the PIN pad image.
- Encryption (Packet and Transport Layer): Obvious stuff, and relatively trivial to circumvent when you have access to the base operating system kernel (where all jailbreaks take place), but still a very valid concept, especially when you consider the very clever technology surrounding things like Secure Remote Password protocol (SRP).
Even today there are more options than this, and even implementing all of them at once is seamless to the end user once they have registered their device. Any one of these by itself is clearly inadequate, but can you really see a bad guy sitting in Starbucks cracking ALL of these in the few moment it takes you to pay for your coffee?
By their nature, mobile devices will always be insecure and limited (bloated OSs, battery life, delicacy, theft and so on) and cannot be seen as a long term solution in payments the way the credit cards were, but I don’t think anyone can deny that they will replace plastic. Mobile devices will take payments to places credit cards can never reach, and the functionality and distribution of payment innovation through mobile devices will grow exponentially over the next 5 – 10 years, it just needs something to help everyone make that transition;
The software PIN.
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