A few months ago, while incredibly bored, I decided to perform my own mapping of the PCI DSS v3.2 to ISO 27001:2013.
I know what you’re going to say; “You can’t compare the two, one’s a management framework, the other’s a controls-based assessment standard!” I agree with you, however, it IS possible to map PCI’s Control Requirements to the ISO’s Control Objectives.
The DSS did not fare well; PCI DSS v3.2 vs ISO 27001-2013
This is not surprising really, the PCI DSS was never designed to be a security framework. It was designed to reduce the risk of card holder data loss to acceptable levels, and nothing more. Whether or not it has succeeded is a debate for the ages, and any frequent readers of my blog will know where I stand.
This week I found myself bored yet again, so I decided to give the DSS another shot at matching up to an ‘industry-accepted’ standard. This time I chose the CIS Critical Security Controls (CSC) v6.0 which, by definition, should have given the DSS a shot at redeeming itself.
In the DSS’s defence, this is not a fair apples-to-apples comparison either, for 2 main reasons:
- The DSS is not a 100% controls-based standard, the CIS CSC is. The DSS, quite rightly, includes a significant chunk of policy and procedure, only a reverse mapping would give the full picture.
- The CIS CSC includes a significant number of technologies ill-suited for all but the most advanced and mature environments. Not to mention those with unlimited budgets. The PCI DSS was written to be understood by as many people, and be as universally affordable, as possible.
That said, we can certainly make some observations that illuminate some of the PCI DSS’s more significant deficiencies:
Data Protection (CSC 13): 18% coverage – Rather ironic, but the entire raison d’être for the DSS; protection of card holder data, scores the lowest in terms of controls requirements. While CSC 13 does not include as much encryption as the DSS, the lack of Data Loss Prevention (DLP) techniques in the DSS is starkly transparent. The DSS has never even mentioned DLP in the main body, or even alluded to it in the “Scope of PCI DSS Requirements“. Only the Designated Entities Supplemental Validation (DESV) section mentions it, and that only in the Guidance as an option.
Inventory of Authorized and Unauthorized Devices CSC 1 & Software (CSC 2): 20% coverage – Asset Management is at the heart of every security program, nothing else can possibly function without it. The requirement for an asset register was not added to the DSS until v3.0. Along with Logging & Monitoring, the PCI minimums related to asset management are the most damaging to the overall program. Automation and alerting are both next to impossible without the baselines the asset register should provide.
Malware Defences (CSC 8): 27% coverage – The DSS focuses almost entirely on anti-malware, and that almost exclusively on Windows. That’s what they mean by “…commonly affected by malicious software” in Requirement 5.1. Base-lining, white-listing, black-listing and so on aren’t featured in the DSS, because with asset management there is no way to track what should and should not be there.
- Security Skills Assessment and Appropriate Training to Fill Gaps (CSC 17): 28% coverage – This one is truly unconscionable given the enormous power of education and training. Security Awareness means nothing unless it’s in appropriate context to the individual taking it. One size does not fit all, and PCI would be wise to take note.
Clearly I have a significant bias against the PCI DSS in general, so I would welcome any counter-argument from others who are equally bored.
Now I have to go find something else to do..